ANATOMY OF THE NOSE


The nose is the filter of the respiratory tree. It humidifies and filters the air going through it.  It is also responsible for smell and most of the senses of tastes. 




NOSE DISORDERS



HAY FEVER (SEASONAL ALLERGIC RHINITIS): 

This is a common allergic condition, such as a reaction to pollen, which affects at least 20% of the population at some point in their life. Its symptoms include a runny and blocked nose, itchy eyes and sneezing.


RHINITIS: 


This is an inflammation inside the nose. Its symptoms include a runny nose and post-nasal drip. The most typical form of rhinitis is allergic rhinitis, which is triggered by airborne allergens, like pollen, pets or dust mites. It can lead to coughing, itching, headache and fatigue.


NASAL POLYPS: 


They are small masses that arise from the mucous membranes of the nose and paranasal sinuses. They are not tender but cause a blocked nose. Sometimes, they need to be removed with a surgery.



EPISTAXIS (NOSE BLEEDS):


Nose bleeds are most common in children but can affect people of any age. Normally they are mild. However, in some cases they are linked to other medical problems, such as blood disorders and requires medical attention. 



ACUTE SINUSITIS (SINUS INFECTION):


The sinuses are small, air filled spaces inside the cheekbones and forehead. 

Acute Sinusitis can occur as a result of a virus or bacterial infection, autoimmune problems or allergies, causing inflammation in the sinus cavity. The symptoms are increased mucus production, congestion, headaches and discomfort in the cheeks, around the eyes or the forehead.


CHRONIC SINUSITIS (CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS):


This may develop after an acute sinusitis and it is a persistent inflammatory condition of one or more of the sinuses, which lasts more than 12 weeks.


DEVIATED NASAL SEPTUM: 


This is a common physical disorder of the nose, where the septum, that divides the nose, is not straight, but deviates to one side. This then obstructs airflow.




Allergen Avoidance


MAJOR STRATEGIES (WHO STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION A)

Wash bedding regularly (every 1 – 2 weeks) at 55-60 oC, if possible, to kill mites: (washing with cold water removes 90% of mite allergens; washing at 55-60 oC kills mites)

Wash pillows and duvets in hot water (55-60 oC) and encase pillows and mattresses with protective coverings that have a pore size of 6 μm or less.

Sufficient ventilation of dwellings to decrease humidity; aim to reduce indoor relative humidity to below 50% and avoid damp housing conditions.


ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES

Use a good quality vacuum cleaner (if possible, one fitted with HEPA filter)

Use a damp duster when dusting and cleaning surfaces

Replace wall to wall carpets with linoleum or wooden floors which can be wiped clean

Remove/reduce curtains and soft furnishings in the bedroom

Replace fabric-covered seating with leather or vinyl

Remove soft toys from the bedroom; wash them at 55-60o C or freeze them (in a kitchen deepfreezer) to kill house dust mites

Exposure of mattresses, rugs and carpets to direct strong sunlight (for more than 3 hours) kills mites and can be used in appropriate regions.


POLLEN AVOIDANCE

Provides mechanical barriers to pollen contact

Keep windows closed at peak pollen times.

Wear glasses or sunglasses to help prevent pollens entering the eyes

Consider wearing a mask over nose and mouth to prevent inhalation of pollens at peak time

Use air-conditioning where possible

Install car pollen filters where possible


PET ALLERGEN AVOIDANCE

Reduces the amount of pet allergen indoors

If possible, find another home for the pet, and do not introduce new animals into the home. If the pet is not removed from the home, these measures may be helpful;

Exclude pets from bedrooms and if possible keep pets outdoors

Vacuum carpets, mattresses and upholstery regularly.

Change clothes before going to school/work if you have had contact with any animal (for example, horse/cat/dog)


COCKROACH ALLERGEN AVOIDANCE

Removes the cockroaches, eliminates the places and conditions in which they can live, and removes allergens

Eradicate cockroaches with appropriate insecticide bait

Seal cracks in floors and ceilings

Enclose all food

Do not store waste in the home

Scrub floors with water and detergent to remove allergens


MOULD ALLERGEN AVOIDANCE

Prevents mould from growing, and mould spores from becoming airborne during mould removal

INDOORS:

Use dehumidifiers in the home if relative humidity is constantly high (above 50%)

Ensure heating, ventilation or air-conditioning systems are properly maintained

Use 5% ammonia solution to remove mould from bathrooms and other contaminated surfaces

Replace carpets with hard flooring; replace wallpaper with paint

Repair indoor water damage immediately